Identification of Critical Parameter of Energy Management Strategy for Demand Response Participation in Academic Buildings

​Backgroud and Challenges

• Recent changes in the policy of wholesale market, opens a new market of wholesale consumer.
• NTU’s 200 hectares campus with multiple stakeholders for the building
• Identify ways to participate in demand response programs that could benefit the consumer without neglecting consumer comfort.


• Identify challenges, and proposed protocol for demand response participation for academic building in NTU and commercial building in Singapore
• Identify potential economic value available from commercial building in the context of district cooling or individual building in general.   

​​​Innovation: Improvement in Load Shedding Strategy to Optimize Consumer Benefits and Optimize Comfort ​

Figure on the right indicates 60% of weighted average commercial building consumption is from cooling load related. Source: Chua, K. J., et al. "Achieving better energy-efficient air conditioning–a review of technologies and strategies." Applied Energy 104 (2013): 87-104.

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The table below indicates the various building strategies employs in the building. This project aims to study the variant of strategy for most economical benefit for consumer, especially in the tropical region.  (Source: Piette, Mary Ann, et al. "Automated demand response strategies and commissioning commercial building controls." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (2006)).

Efficiency and Conservation (Daily)Peak Load Management  (Daily)Demand Response (Dynamic Event Driven)
-Environmental protection
-Resource availability
​-ToU Savings
-Peak Demand Charges
-Grid Peak
​-Price (economic)
​Design​- Efficient Shell, Equipment & Systems​- Low Power Design​- Dynamic Control Capability
​Operations​- Integrated System Operations​-Demand Limiting
-Demand Shifting
​-Demand Shedding
-Demand Shifting
-Demand Limiting


Case Study: Demand Response Market Development in Australia

Benefit of DR in Australia that could be relevant for Singapore:
- Improved system reliability
- Reduce transmission and distribution congestion
- Provide a check on the market power generators
- Reduce final price for consumer

The vision of Demand Response in Australia are to deliver around 5% reduction in system peak demand or approximately 2.8GW of load reduction, in comparison to 2006, and to allow demand response be a critical factor in the future management and efficient of Australia's electricity market. 


The three key influencing factor for the Demand Response in the Australia National Electricity Market are Peak Demand Growth, Roll Out of Smart Meters, and Cost Reflective pricing. We will look into more details of these factor in Singapore market.

[1] Chua, K. J., et al. "Achieving better energy-efficient air conditioning–a review of technologies and strategies." Applied Energy 104 (2013): 87-104.
[2] Roadmap for Demand Response in the Australian National Electricity Market



Dr Bai Xiao Yin ​​​​​
Ms Geraldine Thoung ​​​



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